Below are listed the current life span standards for the various races of the Warcraft universe. The information used below is gathered from game information, confirmed-canon lore books, and other confirmed canon sources. Information gathered from the non-canon sources of the RPG can be found further below. Please note that these ages are averages, gathered from that of various sources and usage of timelines as well as observations (such as undead being unable to die of old age). These are not the confirmed limits of age, as there have been various characters who have lived long past the standard age of their race.

For races such as night elves or blood elves, who recently lost their immortality, the standards may differ according to age prior to their immortality, and if they were born before or after their race was given immortality.

Mortal races

Each maximum life span has been taken from various confirmed lore sources; races with more than one number listed denote the range of a standard age: for example, a human could live for 80 years, while another could reach the hundred. Below are listed races whose ages have been verified by these sources or there is enough gathered information to be listed. Races who have not met this standard are not included on this list; in addition, unless a source claims otherwise, the various clans of a race share the same life span (such as the three dwarven clans). Regarding hybrid races, their life spans are assumed to be a combination of their progenitors' ones.

Race Adulthood Middle age Old Venerable Maximum lifespan
Draenei 20-35[w 1][w 2][w 3] Unknown Unknown Unknown Over 13,000[w 4]
Dragon[w 5][w 6] Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Tens of thousands of years;[w 7] Dragon Aspects previously immortal.
Dwarf 18-20[w 8] Around 200[w 9] Unknown Unknown Over 200[w 9]
Forsaken None None None None None;[w 10] some reach a mindless state.[w 11]
Frostsaber Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Over 10,000[w 12][w 13]
Gnome Unknown; older than 22[w 14] Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown; less than 400[w 15]
Gnoll 4[w 16] Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Goblin Unknown 40[w 17] Unknown Unknown[w 18] Unknown
Half-elf 19-20[w 19] Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
High elf/blood elf 18-20[w 20][w 21][w 22] Unknown Unknown Unknown Over 3,800[w 23][w 24][w 25][w 26][w 27]
Hozen Unknown 14-15[w 28] Unknown Unknown 20[w 29]
Human 18[w 30][w 31] 30-40 60[w 32] 70[w 33] Over 100
Mantid 100[w 34] Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Mogu Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Over 300[w 35]
Naga Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Several thousand years (some are immortal)[w 36]
Night elf 20[38] Unknown Unknown Unknown Several thousand years[w 37]
Nightborne Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Several thousand years,[w 38] at least 10,000[w 39]
Orc 12-13[w 40][w 41][w 42] 40-50[w 43] 60[w 44] 80-90[w 45]
Pandaren 18-20 30-40 60 70 Over 100[w 46][w 47]
Tauren Unknown Unknown ~95[44] ~110[44] Over 100[w 48]
Troll Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Over 200 with loa blessings[w 49][w 50]
Worgen Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown (see below)


  1. ^ Caregiver Isel is an adult when seen in Outland and a small child when seen on alternate Draenor. Considering the timeline difference, this means she had to have reached adulthood before the age of thirty.
  2. ^ In  [Brazie's Dictionary of Devilish Draenei Damsels], Brazie Getz claims to have once met a group of draenei women "around the ripe young age of 230".
  3. ^ At the time of World of Warcraft: The Comic, Med'an — the son of Medivh and Garona Halforcen — was still an adolescent even though his father was killed "almost thirty years" earlier[1] (more specifically 23 years, as Medivh was killed in the year 3 ADP[2] and the comic takes place in the year 26).[3] Meryl Winterstorm suspected that this is due to Med'an's mixed blood; human, orc, and "something else" (later revealed to be draenei).[1] Med'an aging slower (being an adolescent at around 23 years old) due to having partial draenei heritage would imply that draenei reach adulthood slower than humans.
  4. ^ All but a handful of draenei witnessed the exile from Argus,[4] which took place 13,000 years ago;[5] Velen, Larohir, Jessera of Mac'Aree, Anchorite Tessa and the draenei death knight adventurer are confirmed to be part of said majority.[6] Given that only some draenei have achieved immortality,[7] it is likely that normal draenei have extremely long lifespans. In The Art of World of Warcraft: Warlords of Draenor, the draenei are described as "ageless".[8]
  5. ^ Dragons nearing the end of their lives come to the Dragonblight to enrich the land with their passing.[9]
  6. ^ "...and from here there would only be fewer and fewer dragons as time and circumstance took their toll."[10]
  7. ^ Tyranastrasz suffered from his extreme age, being "centuries older than even Alexstrasza."[11]
  8. ^ Gidwin Goldbraids was a childhood friend of Tarennar Sunstrike, an elf that used to kill undead in the Ghostlands in his youth. Since the elf cannot be older than 18 years, Gidwin should share the elf's age.[12]
  9. ^ a b Muradin Bronzebeard was 221 years old during the Third War.[13]
  10. ^ Forsaken are preserved in whatever condition they were in at the time they were raised. They could live forever if their body is kept intact.[14]
  11. ^ Forsaken do not age, as the undeath ends this process. However, decay and rot can affect the forsaken mind sanity, and as time goes on they experience issues similar to the ones they would experience by aging. The most dreaded of these experiences is the mindless state, when the chill of undeath finally overcomes the mind, and the Forsaken becomes nothing more than a mindless zombie.[15]
  12. ^ Ash'alah has been with Tyrande Whisperwind since before the War of the Ancients 10,000 years ago[16] and can be seen alongside Tyrande as a cub in artwork depicting the priestess just before and during the war.[17][18]
  13. ^ Shy-Rotam was saved from rampaging frostmaul giants by Tyrande Whisperwind around 4,000 years ago and is still alive in the present day.[19]
  14. ^ Kinndy Sparkshine was considered a teenager at 22 years old.[20]
  15. ^ Upon being told by Cordressa Briarbow that the next Embrace wouldn't occur for another 425 years, Sapphronetta Flivvers replied that she probably wouldn't be around to see it.[21]
  16. ^ Hackle was a teenager when dueling at Dire Maul and Aramar Thorne remarked he'd be an adult in one or two years.[22]
  17. ^ Gazlowe is stated to be middle-aged and around 40 years old.[23]
  18. ^ According to Lorewalker Cho, it seems that most of the goblin adventurer's ancestors died in a fire.[24] According to Gaxim Rustfizzle, goblins seem to reproduce like rabbits.[25]
  19. ^ While few half elves have been seen in lore, and even less is available on their aging, Arator gives an idea of how a half-elf ages. When he is first seen in-game he's at least twenty years old, having been alive several years prior to his parent's disappearance, and he has the stature of an average adult elf (even wearing plate armor, which a younger one may not be able to do). This would make adulthood for a half-elf about twenty years of age.[26]
  20. ^ Sylvanas' leader story includes a flashback of her getting ready for the day, which states 'she had not yet seen her twentieth autumn.' This puts her somewhere in her teens during the flashback.[27]
  21. ^ Valeera Sanguinar is referred to as young by multiple sources, including Varian. She also lost her parents when she was child. Given the Warcraft time line, she'd be in her early/mid twenties as an adult.[28]
  22. ^ Tarenar Sunstrike sneaked into the Ghostlands to kill undead in his youth; that zone claimed its present name 7 years before Cataclysm.[29]
  23. ^ All elves are claimed to now live up to "several thousand years" old, having all lost their sources of immortality.[30]
  24. ^ According to A Thousand Years of War, all high and blood elves have "something akin to" immortality via the Sunwell.
  25. ^ King Anasterian Sunstrider was notably ancient for a high elf at the time of his death, having lived for 3,000 years.[31]
  26. ^ According to The Warcraft Encyclopedia, Alleria Windrunner fought in the Troll Wars, which would make her over 2,800 years old. However, the Council of Silvermoon members were noted to be far older than Alleria and even then, only some of them had participated in the Troll Wars,[32] and Alleria was described as young.[33] She has since spent another thousand years in the Void and Twisting Nether.
  27. ^ Lorash is a blood elf who stated that he was born in Tirisfal Glades, and that he was a child during the exile of the high elves, which would make him over 7,300 years old.[34]
  28. ^ Their leaders are all 14 or 15.[35]
  29. ^ The hozen are a short-lived race. Their elders typically are no more than twenty years old,[36] and few hozen survive past their 20th birthday.[35]
  30. ^ In Rise of the Lich King, it is said that Arthas was almost of age at 17.
  31. ^ Jaina Proudmoore and Arthas Menethil are 23 and 24, respectively, at the time of the Third War; both are young adults.
  32. ^ Uther the Lightbringer was 64 at death and was described as an elderly man.[13]
  33. ^ Antonidas is described as "venerable" at the age of 71 shortly before his death at the hands of Arthas.[13]
  34. ^ In Chronicle, the Mantid armies strike the Serpent's Spine every hundred years due to how long it takes for new clutches to hatch and grow into adults.[citation needed] 
  35. ^ In Chronicle, it states that mogu can live to be a few centuries old.[citation needed] 
  36. ^ Naga tend to be long-lived, much like elves. Some naga have even gained immortality as part of their mutations. However, most immortal naga are women rather than men.[37]
  37. ^ The Warcraft Encyclopedia also states that "all elves are now mortal and have comparable lifespans that can extend as long as several thousand years".[30]
  38. ^ The Warcraft Encyclopedia also states that "all elves are now mortal and have comparable lifespans that can extend as long as several thousand years".[30]
  39. ^ Both Thalyssra and Elisande are at least 10,000 years old.
  40. ^ Go'el was almost as big as an adult human when he was six.[39]
  41. ^ It is mentioned that orc children begin their weapon training at age six and they are strong enough to fight and hunt at age twelve.[40]
  42. ^ Mother Kashur remarks that Durotan is a full-grown adult when he is twelve years of age. He becomes chieftain and mates with Draka a year later.[41]
  43. ^ Grommash Hellscream was 46 at the time of the Third War.[13]
  44. ^ Eitrigg is stated to be in his late fifties in The Shattering, and described as an elderly orc in Tides of War.
  45. ^ Greatmother Geyah is described as an elderly as the red pox outbreak went on, while Drek'Thar was referred to as just past an orc's middle age at the time of Rise of the Horde. Since thirty years have passed since then, their age would be somewhere in the eighties.
  46. ^ Liu Lang is said to have died of old age at 122.[42]
  47. ^ Pandaren and humans live similar lifespans.[43]
  48. ^ Cairne Bloodhoof was described as an extremely old tauren, and though his eyesight was waning on distant details, he was still a powerful warrior at the time of his death. During the Third War, Cairne was 99 years of age, which would place him at 106 or 107 at death.[13] Jevan Grimtotem is also around the same age. Both are noted to only have some slight gray in their fur.
  49. ^ Rastakhan has ruled the Zandalari Empire for over 200 years,[45] though his longevity is due to loa blessings[46] and Talanji states that he has ruled for "many lifetimes of trolls".[47]
  50. ^ Zandalari are long-lived although just how long is unknown.[48]

Immortal races

These races are immortal and do not die of old age. Some even go as far as to not show weakness as they age.


  1. ^ Guardians are eternal by nature, and as such aging has no effect on them and cannot kill them, as seen with Tortolla (described as ageless by Hamuul Runetotem who was present during the War of the Ancients, and long beforehand as well. Their eternal status allows for resurrection, as seen with Aviana. [49]
  2. ^ As with their father Cenarius, his progeny seem to share in his immortality status, such as Remulos who has been alive for thousands of years.[51]
  3. ^ Mountain giants do not seem to age. They are made apparently out of stone, and similar to the Earthen cannot die from old age.[52]

Extending life through magic

Some powerful mages can extend their lives through magic. The most prominent example being Aegwynn who lived to be over 800 years old. She, of course, is a very special case as she had the powers of a Guardian at her disposal.


This article or section includes speculation, observations or opinions possibly supported by lore or by Blizzard officials. It should not be taken as representing official lore.
  • According to the Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos manual, Malfurion and Illidan Stormrage were 15,032 years old, and Tyrande Whisperwind was 13,836 years old, at the time of the Third War. As the Third War occurred about 10,000 years after the War of the Ancients, and thus before the night elves became immortal, Malfurion and Illidan were about 5,000 years old and Tyrande about 3,800 years old during the War of the Ancients. The War of the Ancients Trilogy however suggests the three were the same age, meaning ages, and by extension life spans, may have been subject to retcon.
    • Another retcon came from the fact that Malfurion was described as being a young elf during the War of the Ancients, yet Chronicle Volume 1 established that night elves came to be in year -15 000, or 5 000 years before the War, meaning that Malfurion would have been among the oldest elves around if his previous given age was correct.
    • Wolfheart notes that Malfurion is over a thousand years older than Jarod Shadowsong.[53]
  • It is unknown how long trolls can live, and there are no records of a troll having died of old age. It is possible that, due to their regenerative abilities, they may be immortal. Chronicle Volume 1 confirmed that trolls can regrow limbs and organs over time, implying their bodies may be capable of a level of regeneration which could result in eternal life. God King Rastakhan himself is possibly around 250-300+ years old, having ruled the Zandalari Empire for more than 200 years.[54]
  • According to Micky Neilson, the Blood of the Highborne novella's first chapter was meant to take place during the Troll Wars,[55][56] which would make Lor'themar Theron Liadrin, and Zul'jin around 3,000 years old. This seems dubious as trolls haven't been known to live that long.


The age and life span of a worgen are unknown and may vary based on the race of the worgen before the transformation. As worgen are actually the result of the magical transformation of other races, they may not have a standard life span.

The original Druids of the Scythe such as Ralaar Fangfire are an example of long-lived worgen. They were former night elves who were put to slumber within the Emerald Dream at the conclusion of the War of the Satyr. Released from their prison in modern times, they have shown little to no signs of aging. This could mean that their longevity as kaldorei upheld as worgen, or perhaps their slumber in the Emerald Dream suspended their aging.

Genn Greymane is an older human, and while he was described as fighting with a vigor that rivals that of younger worgen, he was shown to have aged, as his hair changed from grey to stark white since Legion.

As such, it is possible that the curse may extend one's life, or at least restore their vigor.

In the RPG

Icon-RPG.png This section contains information from the Warcraft RPG which is considered non-canon.

Below are the current life span standards for various races at the time of World of Warcraft & The Burning Crusade as given in the World of Warcraft RPG. Old age represents the average age of death for most individuals, most people on Azeroth will die of disease or of the natural, violent nature of the world before they reach venerable status.[57] Mainly heroes ever reach the maximum age,[57] as such maximum age represents the average range of death for unique individuals. These individuals live longer for whatever reason (perhaps will to live, better-living conditions, magic, or by other unnatural means). Please note that exceptions do exist and there are individuals, "legends" who may outlive even those who attain venerable status. A good example includes night elves that have lived over 10,000 years (although this was with the help of immortality, which they have recently lost).


Each maximum life span is derived from dice rules which are based on d6, d10, d12, d20, and d% dice. The table shows the lowest to the highest possible outcome for rolls which represent the range of maximum lifespan usually for heroes of any given race. The average person will die of old age before reaching venerable. It should be noted that the table does not always fit with written lore references to lifespans, and there are always exceptions to the rules as well, with individuals who live longer than the average "maximum" range. In the case where a second set of numbers is listed on the table, it is to denote where written lore accounts may differ from the dice mechanics, whenever applicable.

Race Adulthood Middle age Old Venerable Maximum lifespan
Centaur 8 20 30 43 45-55
Dark Iron dwarf 40 125 188 250 ??
Ironforge dwarf 40 125 188 250 252-450
Flamewaker 250 750 1,070 1,500 ??
Forest troll 17 30 47 69 70-79
Forsaken None None None None None[n 1]
Furbolg 30 70 100 130 133-190
Goblin 20 40 73 85 75-93
Gnome 40 100 150 200 203-500
Half-elf 20 62 93 125 128-185 (or 200-300)[n 2]
Half-ogre 22 44 71 88 89-98
Half-orc 17 37 60 75 77-99 (or 83-110)[n 3]
High elf/Blood elf 60 (or 110) 175 263 350 354-390 (or up to 2000)[n 4]
Hobgoblin n/a n/a n/a n/a 3[n 5]
Human/Worgen 15 35 53 80 85-130
Jungle troll 17 30 47 69 70-79
Murloc 12 25 40 60 ??
Naga 500 650 800 1,000 ??[n 6]
Night elf 110 (or 300) 500 650 700 705-1200 (or up to 2000)[n 7]
Ogre 16 38 65 80 82-120
Ogre mage 16 38 65 120 123-180
Orc 18 (or 20) 40 65 80 82-100 (or rarely over 75)[n 8]
Pandaren 80 175 263 350 ??
Quilboar 3 (or 17[n 9]) 30 47 69 ?? (or None[n 10])
Satyr 300 None None None None[n 11]
Sea giant 100 750 1,070 1,500 ??
Tauren 15 (or 50) 75 95 110 114-150 (or rarely over 100)[n 12]
Wildhammer dwarf 40 125 188 250 252-450


While Manual of Monsters gives a ballpark figure to how much time passes between each stage of a dragon's life cycle, it lacks information on "whelps", but implies that whelps become "drakes" in one year of hatching from the egg (however this may no longer be accurate, although it seems to be supported by information given in Day of the Dragon).

Age ranges for dragons from Dark Factions represent race ages for the dragon (whelp) creature class (technically a dragon whelp creature class). As noted the game rules only describe how to play "whelps", specifically a red dragon whelp (which start out as adults, and can reach a certain maximum age range before dying). Other whelps must be made by modifying certain aspects of the creature class (subtypes and abilities). The age ranges are not equivalent to aging into drakes, mature, or dragonwyrm forms. There are no rules in the book on how to play a drake, but it discusses that players could create their own creature classes to describe drakes.



Race Spiderling Adult Middle Age Old Age Venerable Maximum lifespan
Nerubian 3 15 35 53 70 ??


  1. ^ Forsaken do not age, as they are already dead.[57] Forsaken do not mature into adulthood, an individual becomes Forsaken upon death. While technically immortal, some Forsaken exhibit signs of old age, losing their identities and eventually sentience. They appear as dying old humans, feeble and scared, with a cold growing inside them, and forgetting who they are. They are losing their mind to the Scourge, and would eventually become a "mindless one" - an unintelligent zombie. All forsaken fear this process, as it means they revert to the Scourge's will and lose themselves to the Lich King and his dominance. The Forsaken will often kill these poor souls, perhaps as a form of mercy.[58]
  2. ^ Written lore accounts claim a half elf still enjoys a long life span, though lacking his elven parent's longevity, reaching maturity at 20 years of age and living for two to three centuries on average.[59][60]
  3. ^ Written lore accounts claim half-orcs live longer than their orc parents, with life spans equivalent to a human's.[61][62] The dice maximum age for half-orcs more or less overlaps the human and orc ranges of life span (with both orcs and humans actually appearing to live longer than half-orcs).
  4. ^ Written lore accounts claim that high elves reach adulthood at 110 years of age, but can also live up to several thousand years before dying of old age.[63][30]
  5. ^ If a hobgoblin lives to his third year, he's ancient.[64]
  6. ^ In addition to their natural longevity, a number of naga develop mutations that increase their life spans even further. Some are immortal.[37]
  7. ^ An earlier lore account claims that night elves achieve adulthood at 110 years and, while no longer immortal, can live to see a second millennium.[65] The Warcraft Encyclopedia also states that "all elves are now mortal and have comparable lifespans that can extend as long as several thousand years".[30]
  8. ^ An earlier lore account claims orcs are a relatively short-lived people, reaching maturity in about 18 years and rarely living longer than 75 years.[66] It is also said that orcs that have drunk the blood of demons can live for a very long time, the magic sustaining them.[67]
  9. ^ Reach adulthood at age three.[68]
  10. ^ Quilboar never reach maximum age, they commit ritual suicide once they become weak, elderly, crippled or past child-bearing age.[68]
  11. ^ Satyrs are immortal and cannot die due to old age, nor do they age.[69]
  12. ^ An earlier lore account claims tauren have relatively short life spans, reaching adulthood around age 15 and rarely living for longer than 100 years.[70]


  1. ^ a b Secrets, pg. 7
  2. ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 2, pg. 129, 133
  3. ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 3, pg. 151, 166
  4. ^ Rise of the Horde - "All but a handful of us know what we fled on Argus," said Larohir. "We remember it. We remember what Kil’jaeden did, what happened to our people. We would—we will—happily die to preserve even a handful of our race uncorrupted."
  5. ^ N [10-45] Bringer of the Light
  6. ^ Jessera of Mac'Aree, Velen, Anchorite Tessa, Larohir
  7. ^ Loreology on Twitter (2013-12-19)
  8. ^ The Art of World of Warcraft: Warlords of Draenor, pg. 139
  9. ^ Dragonblight Preview. Archived from the original on 2008-02-21.
  10. ^ Dawn of the Aspects: Part I, pg. 34
  11. ^ Day of the Dragon, pg. 97 (ebook)
  12. ^ Fiona's Caravan
  13. ^ a b c d e Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos manual, pg. 89-93
  14. ^ Dave Kosak on Twitter (2012-09-29)
  15. ^ H [1-30] The Chill of Death, Gretchen Dedmar
  16. ^ Ultimate Visual Guide, pg. 89
  17. ^ File:Cenarius1.jpg
  18. ^ File:Tyrande WotA TCG.jpg
  19. ^ A [60G] Rampaging Giants
  20. ^ Jaina Proudmoore: Tides of War, chapter 4
  21. ^ Before the Storm, pg. 112
  22. ^ World of Warcraft: Traveler, pg. 280
  23. ^ Traveler: The Spiral Path, pg. 238
  24. ^ H [10-35] Family Tree
  25. ^ A [21] A Gnome's Respite
  26. ^ Arator the Redeemer
  27. ^ Edge of Night, pg. 3
  28. ^ World of Warcraft: The Comic, issue: ??
  29. ^ N [15-30] What I Do Best
  30. ^ a b c d e The Warcraft Encyclopedia/High Elves and Blood Elves
  31. ^ Blood of the Highborne: ... and though the weight of three thousand years had exacted a heavy toll on his body...
  32. ^ Tides of Darkness, chapter 14
  33. ^ Tides of Darkness
  34. ^ A Good War, pg. 41
  35. ^ a b N [30-35] Hozen in the Mist
  36. ^ Hozen Maturity
  37. ^ a b The Warcraft Encyclopedia/Naga
  38. ^ World of Warcraft: Illidan, chapter 6: "He had the ageless look of a mature night elf, which meant he could be any age from twenty years to fifteen thousand."
  39. ^ Lord of the Clans
  40. ^ Rise of the Horde
  41. ^ Rise of the Horde, pg. 158
  42. ^ Liu Lang, The First Explorer
  43. ^ Chris Metzen on Twitter (17 Oct 2012): “@XaranAlamas: @ChrisMetzen Quick question: What's an average Pandaren lifespan? Roughly humanlike? 100s? 200s? Thanks” Roughly human...
  44. ^ a b Loreology on Twitter (2014-06-12) “@Loreology How old is a tauren canonically when they’re an adult, middle aged and old?” “Here’s what I have: Tauren reach “old age” ~ 95 and “venerable old age” ~110.”
  45. ^ For Council and King
  46. ^ H [10-50] In Bwonsamdi's Shadow, "My king is blessed by de loa in ways your kind cannot imagine. He has been given long life, swift healing, and strength beyond most trolls."
  47. ^ H [110-120] We Need Each Other
  48. ^ Vol'jin: Shadows of the Horde, pg. 257
  49. ^ N [30-35] Tortolla Speaks
  50. ^ N [15-30D] The Dreadlord Balnazzar
  51. ^ The Long vigil and the children of Cenarius' involvement. Remulos was apparently alive at the time of his brother Zaetar's death by the Centaur, which was thousands of years ago.
  52. ^ Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne manual, pg. 17
  53. ^ Wolfheart, chapter 3
  54. ^ For Council and King
  55. ^ Micky Neilson on Twitter
  56. ^ Micky Neilson
  57. ^ a b c World of Warcraft: The Roleplaying Game, pg. 174
  58. ^ Horde Player's Guide, pg. 152
  59. ^ Warcraft: The Roleplaying Game, pg. 48
  60. ^ Alliance Player's Guide, pg. 11
  61. ^ Warcraft: The Roleplaying Game, pg. 49
  62. ^ Horde Player's Guide, pg. 9
  63. ^ Warcraft: The Roleplaying Game, pg. 42
  64. ^ Dark Factions, pg. 197
  65. ^ Warcraft: The Roleplaying Game, pg. 44
  66. ^ Warcraft: The Roleplaying Game, pg. 51
  67. ^ Lands of Mystery, pg. 183
  68. ^ a b Monster Guide, pg. 111
  69. ^ Dark Factions, pg. 24
  70. ^ Warcraft: The Roleplaying Game, pg. 53
  71. ^ Dark Factions, pg. 126